Article: « Building with turf at Roman Vindolanda: multi-scalar analysis of earthen materials, construction techniques, and landscape context » (2021)
Russell B., Romankiewicz T., Gardner T., Birley A., Snyder J. R., Beckett C. T. S. (2021), Building with turf at Roman Vindolanda: multi-scalar analysis of earthen materials, construction techniques, and landscape context, Archaeological Journal, 179, pp. 169-210.
Turf was widely used as a building material in the Roman period, especially in military architecture. Despite this, few studies have investigated properties of turf in construction, and fewer still have applied micromorphology to ancient turf walls. This study details the methods and results from a combined macro- and micro-scale analysis, using samples from the well-preserved ramparts at Vindolanda, a fort associated with Hadrian’s Wall. Our work not only proposes a refined methodology for the wider geoarchaeological study of turf walls, but also provides new, deeper insight into the properties of turf as a building material.